Mainly the Formwork functions as a supporting structure, the Scaffolding function is for the arrangement of working platforms, and the Shoring function is for supporting methods for unsafe structures.
It is artificial support provided below and around the precast or cast-in-site concrete work. precast or cast-in-site concrete work.
Construction and casting are two important factors in the concrete industry. It shares a significant amount of concrete cost. Formwork is designed according to The ACI document SP-4.
The method of Statement for Formwork is quite important to ensure its high quality.
Types of formwork
- Steel form work
- Wooden form work
1- Steel formwork is made of
- steel sheets
- Angle Iron
- Tee Iron
2- Wooden formwork consists of
- Planks battens
The time of formwork removal depends on the following factors
(Removal timing is very important for a planning engineer).
1. Type of Cement
Rapid-hardening cement requires lesser time compared to Ordinary Portland Cement
2. Ratio of concrete mix
Rich ratio concrete gain strength earlier as compared to weak ratio concrete.
3. Weather condition
The hydration process accelerates in hot weather conditions as compared to cold and humid weather conditions.
Time of Removal of Formwork
For normal works, the cost of formwork is about 30%-40% of the concrete cost.
For special works, the cost of formwork is about 50%-60% of the concrete cost.
It’s a temporary structure to provide a platform at different levels of a building for workers and Materials.
Types of Scaffolding
1. Single Scaffolds
It consists of Standards (v – Standards “v posts” (10 cm)), Putlogs (7.5 x 7.5), and Ledgers Wooden board braces used for ordinary buildings.
2. Double Scaffolds
It consists of two rows of standards. 15 cm, 1.5 m Shores are provided. Used for superior works.
3. Ladder Scaffolds
It consists of Brackets for Plate form.
4. Cantilever Scaffolds
It consists of Cantilever, Struts, Standards, Putlogs, and Plate forms. It is used above ground level.
5. Suspended Scaffolds
It consists of Ropes and Working platforms, Ropes can be raised manually or mechanically and are used for light construction and finishing works of multi-story buildings.
6. Steel or Tubular Scaffolds
It consists of Steel tubes (1-1/2” –2-1/2” diameter), Couplers or Clamps (to hold pipes in different positions) Prop nuts (to hold single pipes), Bolts, and Wedge & Clip.
it is the method of providing temporary support (shores) to an unsafe structure.
Types of Shoring
1- Horizontal shoring or flying shoring
It consists of Dead shores,Sole plates, Needles, Props Used for rebuilding of walls.
2- Vertical shoring or dead shoring
It consists of Rackers, Needles,Cleats, Braces and Sole plate
Used to strengthen a wall.
Shuttering Carpenter productivity :
- Form work-Footings, foundations, ground 8 m2 / day.
- Form work-Columns, pedestals 6 m2/day.
- Form work-Beams and slabs 8 m2/day.
- Form work-Tie beams, arches, and lintels 5 m2/day.
- Form work-Walls 8 m2 / day.
- Form work-Circular, special shapes 4 m2/day.
- Formwork- Making timber shutters 8 m2/day.
Download the PDF Version of this article to share with your colleagues:
Tag:concrete construction, construction of concrete, excavation shoring, Formwork, formwork calculation excel, formwork shoring, labor productivity, safety scaffolding, scaffold definition, scaffolding, scaffolding and formwork, scaffolding productivity per day, Scaffolding types, scaffolding vygotsky, Shoring, shoring and reshoring, shoring and shuttering, shoring definition, shoring excavation, shoring meaning, Shuttering, shuttering carpenter productivity per day, shuttering materials, work platforms